In 1834, Charles Felix Marie Texier, a French archaeologist and explorer, set off across Turkey and got as far as the heart of Anatolia, planning to discover the ruins of a Roman center called Tavium. He asked everybody about its ruins or entrenchment walls. Eventually, on reaching a small village, nowadays called Bozhazkale, about 90 miles east of Ankara, Texier encountered a villager willing to show him something special.
After a one-hour walk or so, along winding paths, he reached a natural gallery on whose walls a procession of 66 embossed figures stood out, some of them holding curved swords, others wearing cone-shaped crowns, and all of them surrounded by all kinds of hieroglyphs. The local people would call the place "Yazilikay" or "the inscribed stones". What Texier discovered then, in 1834, was in fact the capital of a people long since lost in the night of history, the Hittites. Without even knowing it, he rediscovered a Carpatho-Danubian empire, forgotten by history, and its capital, Hattusha. The ruins, without being "swallowed" by sand, earth or jungles (as the case was in other parts of the world) were only cracked, damaged by frost, winds and rain. One cannot help remembering that in nature nothing is lost and nothing gained since everything keeps changing.
Six years had passed until Sir William Hamilton followed into Texier's footsteps. As he was contemplating the Roman "wonders", Sir William Hamilton decided to draw them. Hamilton and his assistants knew that Herodotus - the "father of history" - had been born in Anatolia, at Halicarnassus, and imagined that Anatolia had been only under Greek sovereignty, part of the Persian kings' dominion, of the Conquering Macedonians' or of Byzantium (as some "historians" still do in Romania, who, in the good Hamiltonian tradition, insist on our Roman origin, forgetting that we, the Carpatho-Danubians, conquered the Italic Peninsula four times, and that the Roman-Dacian war was nothing but a fratricidal one.). The deciphering of the clay plates and of the stone inscriptions will liberate our past from the spell of legends and enigmas, and will help interpret or cast a different light upon the turbulent relationships between the Hittites and the Egyptians.
The arrival of the Greeks, on the western coast of Anatolia, in the so-called Asia Minor (between 1900-1400 BC), in four hordes - Ionian, Dorian, Aeolian and Achaean, and the settlement of their colonies on the Thracian Sea shore (today the Aegean Sea) will have no impact upon the center of Anatolia; according to Dale Albrown (in Anatolia: Cauldron of Cultures, pg.12), Anatolia had been - for several centuries - subject to a Balkan tribal federation - the Phrygians, whose king Midas became legendary for the opulence of Gordion, the capital." One should not forget that only a few km east of Anatolia, another empire - the Urartu Kingdom - flourished, only to disappear into the black hole of history.
Between the Greek colonies on the shores of the Thracian Sea and the Phrygians, another Thracian kingdom was soon founded - the Lydians'. In roughly the 6th century BC, Anatolia was once more invaded, this time by the Cimmerians (themselves of Thracian origin). The ensuing fratricidal war caused serious losses to both the Phrygians and the Lydians. The Cimmerian people extended its sovereignty over the center of Anatolia and as far as the Thracian Sea and over several of the Greek colonies too.
However, fortune didn't smile on Anatolia. In 547 BC the Persian king Cyrus the Great (or the Elder) divided Anatolia into satrap provinces. His successor, less lucky, was to encounter the Macedonian Thracian Alexander, who in 334 BC crossed Europe and reached Anatolia, setting his people (living along the banks of the river Granicus) free. In the northwest of Anatolia he defeated Darius III's army, three times more numerous than his. After Alexander Macedon's death, the Seleunid Dynasty - founded by Seleucus, Macedonian general under Alexander the Great - would have control over Babylon and Anatolia for more than 250 years.
It was as late as the 2nd century BC that the Romans arrived in Anatolia. Our ancestor, Constantine the Great - of Dacian descent, and born in the village Nis - ascended the throne after two other Dacian emperors (Galerius the Elder, 311 BC - who had changed the name of the Roman Empire into the Dacian Empire and moved its capital to Salonika - and Galerius the Younger, 313 BC).
Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople (named after him), nowadays Istanbul, thus laying the foundations of the Eastern Roman Empire. Time passed, and Anatolia's wheel of fortune turned as the later founders of the Ottoman Empire made their appearance. The world, historians, archaeologists, even legends seem to have forgotten the Carpatho-Danubian Hittites Only Texier re-discovered them. Will there be another Texier to tell us: "You, Daco-Romanian people, do not confine your archeological diggings to Sarmis-e-Getusa (in Vulgar Latin meaning "Sarmis and Getusa"); do not forget that in Sanskrit Sarmi-Seget-Usa means "I'm thinking about flowing."
In The Aryans (pg.176-177), V.Gordon Childe was indicating the map of the Carpatho-Danubian spreading, as far as the center of Anatolia and from there across Mesopotamia to Persia. Iosif Constantin Dragan, in We, the Thracians (pg.158), made use of the same arguments (although his book was published 16 years before V.Gordon Childe's above-mentioned work), speaking about the Hittite tribes as the first among the Carpatho-Danubian ones to "leave the sacred space" and followed shortly by the Luwians. Apart from the Dardan (Trojan)-Ramantes who settled down on the Anatolian coasts along the Thracian Sea shore, the Carpatho-Danubian Hittite people headed for the heart of Mesopotamia, and founded an empire, whose boundaries were marked by the Getic Sea (the Black sea) and Palestine. The founder of this empire was Labarnas and was followed by his son, Hatusilas, who extended his empire and pushed its frontier even farther, after braving the native Hatti people.
The Carpatho-Danubian Hittite civilization developed simultaneously with the Simerian and Egyptian ones. The Hittite language belonged to the Euro-Indian languages and used two writing systems: cuneiform - for everyday information - and hieroglyphic - for monumental and funeral inscriptions. Their main god was the Sun, but they also worshipped several other "minor", "everyday" gods. In Anatolia people "saw double", so to speak - see their obvious preference for sculpture and bas-relief carvings, and for two-headed creatures. One could say they had loved symmetry since the Neolithic period. The Carpatho-Danubian Hittites created the two-headed eagle, a symmetrical form which they "borrowed" from Byzantium. I remember visiting the Patriarch's house in Istanbul and seeing the bas-relief with the twin eagles, one facing east, and the other, west. However, history's "thieves" wouldn't stop here; as the Huns founded the Austro-Hungarian Empire (by their alliance with the Austrians), they adjudicated the symbol; and so did the Tzar of Russia. Then, several decades later, after the Soviet Union broke up, the new Russia proclaimed it its national emblem, in 1990.
This is more or less similar to the story of the zvastika - a symbol of eternal life with the
Carpatho-Danubian Aryans (the oldest zvastika having been recently found in Bulgaria) -
misused by a number of irresponsible people and turned into a symbol of irresponsibility,
intolerance, and savageness. And all these in (or by) a so-called civilized world!
The migration of the Carpatho-Danubian Thracians to Anatolia, as far as Asia Minor, took place during the early years of the Bronze Age. This could explain why the bronze hatchets found in this area are very much alike, or why the pottery made along the Danube shares certain characteristics with that from Anatolia. The Thracian craftsmen left their mark upon these hatchets too (also known as "Thracian hatchets").
The rediscovery of the Hittite civilization raised several questions since its writing system had not been deciphered yet; it stayed "mute", until a Czech, Bedrich Hrozny, a renowned professor of Assyriology, managed to partially decipher it, guided by the Norwegian J.A.Knudtzon's original theory holding that the Hittite grammar had structurally, a European characteristic. Thus, on the 24th of November 1919, in front of the members of the "Near East" society in Berlin, Bedrich Hnudtzon officially included the Hittite language among the Indo-European languages. Highly as the Czech's initiative was acclaimed, other 27 years had to pass until Helmuth T.Bosseri - professor at the University of Istanbul - was to discover the twin inscriptions which flanked the entrance upon the Neo-Hittite temple in Karatepe, in the Taurus Mountains, south Turkey. A Semitic Phoenician writing preceded the Hittite hieroglyphs. Their texts - which were almost identical - seemed long enough to guarantee a correct deciphering. Yet, the decoding of the Hittite language messed up things even more. If the Hittites spoke a European language that did not belong to the aboriginal people on the Anatolian tablelands then where had they come from?
Most researchers consider them a European people who crossed the Bosporus; other "historians" see them as the "alpinists" - whose native lands were placed between the Black sea and the Caspian Sea - who climbed and crossed the Caucasus Mountains and who landed in the middle of the Anatolian Plateau! Why should the Bulgarians only be the descendants of the old Thracians (according to the daughter of the former Bulgarian president - Ludmila Jivcova - a "history professor" who described the Bulgarians as descending, not from the Slavs, but from the Thracians, and who extended their history by several milleniums overnight)? Why shouldn't the Russians too be of Hittite lineage? Possibly this argument entitled the Russians to attach the old Hittite emblem of the two-headed eagle to their tricoloured flag. History, history, history - fallen prey in the hands of politicians greedy for power and history! According to this absurd theory, the poor Carpatho-Danubian Hittites, instead of conquering the Anatolian Plateau, after crossing the Bosforus and the Dardanelles effortlessly, they thought it wiser to climb - alpinists as they were - the Caucasus Mountains instead. If the Russian "historians" were given any credit, the Hittite people should be considered "The Greatest Alpinists of Antiquity."
The whole world is tracing back its origin, striving to provide proof as to its millennial existence Only this is being done at our expense (or at the expense of the Carpatho-Danubians I wonder how much will their arguments weigh against the chromosomal research which, in less than 10-15 years, will come in handy to any freshman in archaeology!
And if we, Romanians, do not carry out this investigation, let us hope others will do it for us Until then, SLEEP TIGHT, Romanian archaeologists and historians!